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How to Read a Journal Article

Submit your journal article as a new post on this page. Cite your article using proper MLA with an embedded link to your articles url. Include a brief summary of the authors hypothesis and findings. 

The post title should be the name of your article with a - and your name. See example below

Post-burn breast reconstruction using an artificial dermis - a long-term follow up.

posted Aug 19, 2016, 4:26 PM by Messier 31   [ updated Aug 19, 2016, 4:28 PM ]

Summary: Integra, a artificial dermis, composed of shark chondroitin 6-sulfate and bovine collagen was used to operate a 12-year old girl who suffered a third degree burn at two years old. Done during puberty, she was anesthetized to cut out the burned tissue and replace it with the Integra. The integra would build a matrix of cells that would take effect in reconstructing the right breast. With the process of seven years at the age of 19, her operation was a success that proved Integra to be reliable with reconstructing breast tissue.

Gronovich, Yoav. Lotan, Adi Maisel. Retchkiman, Meir.
"Post-burn breast reconstruction using an artificial dermis-a long-term follow up," BiomedCentral.n.p., 4 July.2016. web. 30 March, 2016.

Walking Like Dinosaurs: Chickens with Artificial Tails Provide Clues about Non-Avian Theropod Locomotion-Robel Bekele

posted Aug 18, 2016, 9:25 PM by Robel Bekele

Because of multiple pieces of evidence, scientists widely accept the fact that birds evolved from bipedal theropod dinosaurs. Birds have inherited many locomotory traits from these dinosaurs: which include bipedalism, fully erect posture, and parasagittal hind limb movement. There are some traits that the two species don't share, like the center of mass that has been moved through the evolutionary shift from the posterior area to a more anterior location. Two scientists named Carrano and Biewener wanted to see whether or no the center of mass affected postural and kinetic changes in birds so they attached artificial tails to chickens to recreate dinosaur-like limb posture and locomotion in chickens. The people who wrote this article wanted to continue Carrano and Biewener's research. They raised twelve chickens and put them into three groups: the control, control-weight, and experimental groups. The attached a coat with a lead weight and put it on the chickens in the control-weight group and attached artificial tails to the chickens in the experimental group. The control group was left alone. They recorded the three groups of chickens while they were standing  without moving for at least 10 seconds and while they moved 3 ms encouraged by food. The knee and ankle joints of the chickens in the experimental group were more extended than in the control group and the femur was more extruded in the beginning of the stance phase and more retracted in the end of the stance phase than in the control group.       

Bruno Grossi, Omar Larach, Mauricio Canals, Rodrigo A. Vasquez. "Walking Like Dinosaurs: Chickens with Artificial Tails Provide Clues about Non-Avian Theropod Locomotion." PLOS February 5, 2014. August 18, 2016.

Health effects of mitochondrial nuclear DNA mismatch-kelly vasconcelos

posted Aug 18, 2016, 8:49 PM by kelly vasconcelos

This article was about how mice bred such as their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA derive from different strains, tends to grow older in better health than mice whose mitochondrial and DNAS are matched. Although their results made them look healthier they did have effects in oxygen . So they are still doing research in " mitochondrial placement therapy"

Melanopsin regulates sleep causing responses to light in mice - Pradeep Muthaiya

posted Aug 18, 2016, 7:42 PM by Pradeep Muthaiya

In a study conducted on mice, scientists found that in mice retina there are photosensitive retinal ganglion cells that express the photo pigment melanopsin which has a great impact on sleep induction based on a response to light. Wanting to test the specific needs of the light they formed a hypothesis that the blue light which had the closest frequency to the receiving ability of the melanopsin would cause the fastest sleep induction. However when testing using green, blue and violet lights, they found that green caused the mice to sleep in 3 minutes versus the 18 minutes of blue light and 10 minutes of violet. All were tested at the same time of night. They found that green lights produced the maximum amount of rod opsin, and melanopsin responded better to the higher amount of rod opsin causing the mice to fall asleep faster.

Violetta Pilorz, Shu K. E. Tam, Steven Hughes, Carina A. Pothecary, Aarti Jagannath, Mark W. Hankins, David M. Bannerman, Stafford L. Lightman, Vladyslav V. Vyazovskiy, Patrick M. Nolan, Russell G. Foster , Stuart N. Peirson. "Melanopsin Regulates Both Sleep-Promoting and Arousal-Promoting Responses to Light." PLOS June 8, 2016. August 18, 2016.

Poor Quality Sleeping May Be Linked to Shrinking Brain- Jocelyn Velasquez

posted Aug 18, 2016, 6:07 PM by Jocelyn Velasquez

Their has been a study where poor sleep quality can cause the brain to shrink. It can cause difficulty on the person waking up and falling asleep. A research has been made in Norway where scientist gave brain scans to 147 Norwegian adults around the age of 54. They found out that their differences such as physical activity, weight and blood pressure has affect on their sleep quality. It is also known to affect one's reasoning, planning, memory, and problem solving. Researchers are recommending to start gaining good sleeping habits for the good of one's health.

Haelle, Tara. "Poor Quality Sleep May Be Linked to Shrinking Brain." U.S News. N.p., 3 Sept. 2014. Web.

title of article

posted Aug 18, 2016, 9:22 AM by Marschal Fazio

Summary- 1 paragraph

MLA citation with hyperlink to article

emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder: behavioral and neural responses to three socio-emotional tasks - sabrina malinda

posted Aug 21, 2015, 1:25 AM by Sabrina Malinda   [ updated Aug 21, 2015, 1:28 AM ]

The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not social anxiety disorder (SAD)  involves deficits in emotional regulation and in cognitive reappraisal. The authors conducted an experiment where they examined reappraisal-related behavioral and neural responses in 27 participants with SAD and 27 healthy controls (HC) during three socio-emotional tasks: (1) looming harsh faces (Faces); (2) videotaped actors delivering social criticism(Criticism); (3) written autobiographical negative self-beliefs(Beliefs) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal. They hypothesized that patients with SAD would be less successful in down regulating negative emotional reactivity when implementing cognitive reappraisal in each of the three tasks compared to HC. The results showed that, behaviorally, patients with SAD had a lesser reappraisal-related reduction in negative emotion in the Beliefs task and neurally, they had a less blood oxygen level during the Faces task and the Criticism task compared to the HC participants. They concluded that there is a dysfunction of cognitive reappraisal in SAD patients, especially when reappraising faces. They believe that temporal dynamics of the BOLD response in regulatory brain regions in patients with SAD are still not well understood and they hope future studies could examine brain activity related to different regulatory processes. 

Ziv, Michal, Philippe R. Goldin, Hooria Jazaieri, Kevin S. Hahn, and James J. Gross. "Emotion Regulation in Social Anxiety Disorder: Behavioral and Neural Responses to Three Socio-emotional Tasks." Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders. BioMed Central Ltd., 4 Nov. 2013. Web. 26 July 2015.

Leptin, IL-6, and suPAR reflect distinct inflammatory changes associated with adiposity, lipodystrophy and low muscle mass in HIV-infected patients and controls -Peter Le

posted Aug 21, 2015, 12:27 AM by Peter Le

    The purpose of this research was to find if Leptin, IL-6, and suPAR was associated with adiposity, lipodystrophy, and low muscle mass in HIV-infected patients. HIV patients are able to exhibit accelerated aging. The authors objective was to study if leptin, IL-6, and suPAR ssociated with adiposity, lipodystrophy, and sarcopenia in HIV-infected patients. Inflammation is involved in age-associated complications, however it wasn't proven that the same inflammation change were involved. The results were that adiposity was associated with FMI and VAT, but not LMI. IL-6 was associated with FMI and VAT and low LMI while suPAR is associated with low LMI and weakly with high VAT and FMI. Leptin, IL-6, and suPAR can expand our understanding with imflammation processes that are involved with age. Leptin levels were higher in HIV-patients with lipodystrophy while there wasn't any difference in IL-6 or suPar levels.

Anne Langkilde, Janne Petersen, Jens Henrick Henricksen, Frank Kreiger Jensen, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Ove Andersen, Jane Gersoft. "Leptin, IL-6, and suPAR reflect distinct inflammatory changes associated with adiposity, lipodystrophy and low muscle mass in HIV-infected patients and controls" 21 Aug. 2015.

Sex differences in mood disorders: perspectives from humans and rodent models- Maryam Taat

posted Aug 21, 2015, 12:16 AM by maryam taat   [ updated Aug 21, 2015, 12:30 AM ]

The purpose of this research was to determine what biological sex differences contribute to mood disorders being twice as common in women than in men. The authors set up a series of experiments that involved (i) gonadectomizing a group of mice to test the difference of circulating hormones, (ii) giving a dose of testosterone to female mice to test the organizational effects of hormones, and (iii) using genetic manipulation to test the effects of the sex chromosome complement by moving the Sry gene on the Y chromosome to an autosome. The results showed that a combination of both the male sex chromosome complement and the effects of testosterone caused male mice to have lower anxiety levels than female mice. The authors found that the male sex chromosome complement influenced the expression of somatostatin (SST) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) related genes. In addition, they hypothesized that the testosterone in males opposed the pro-anxiety effects of the sex chromosome complement. The author's results show that sex differences in mood have a biological basis. They hope that this information can help other scientists examine the sex differences in mood in humans. 

Seney, Marianne L., and Etienne Sibille. "Sex Differences in Mood Disorders: Perspectives from Humans and Rodent Models." Biology of Sex Differences. N.p., 7 Dec. 2014. Web. 20 Aug. 2015.

Wnt/β-catenin signaling in heart regeneration (Chris Park)

posted Aug 20, 2015, 10:32 PM by Chris Park

     The purpose of the article was to mainly understand the role of Wnt/β-catenin in the repairing of heart tissue after damage. It first gives us a lot of introduction and background information needed about heart tissue regeneration. All organism can regenerate damaged tissue but by each organism it depends on our ability which tissue we can regenerate.          Humans, cannot regenerate heart tissue. And sciencist, including Gunes Ozhan and Gilbert Weidinger were questioning how we can make that possible and be later used in regenerative therapies. Lower vertebrae animals can regenerate heart tissue, like zebrafish and newts. Other animals like neonatal mice lose their ability to do so after seven days. And after careful research scientist see that Wnt/β-catenin plays an important role of helping the regeneration of tissue by channeling Wnt proteins, β-catenin, an effector molecule, fibrosis and many other important proteins. 
     This research was not about how the Wnt/β-catenin can help for heart regeneration but rather about more in-depth research about Wnt/β-catenin to know more about how it works so other scientist can learn new learned information to help with regeneration. We take a look into animals including zebrafish to see how the Wnt/β-catenin helps in generation heart tissue while we have limited abilities. The zebrafish able to regenerate after removal of apex of the ventricle, mosaic ablation, and cryoinjury-induced necrosis and recover within 30-120 days with no scar. Wnt/β-catenin might be different in a mammal heart, but in conclusion, the Wnt/β-catenin plays a complex and important role in heart tissue regeneration and while lower vertebrae animals have to ability to regenerate, mammals, including humans cannot.

Ozhan, Gunes, and Gilbert Weidinger. "Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Heart Regeneration." Cell Regeneration. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Aug. 2015.

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