The Cell Membrane and Transport

The Cell Membrane
-The cell membrane's purpose is to protect the cell interior. Selective permeable enable the membrane to do that so strictly allow select types of molecules can physically go through the cell membrane. The membrane is amphipathic so it has both hydrophilic and phobic areas.

The Membrane Consists of:
  • Phospholipid Bi-layer
  • Cholesterol
  • Integral Protein
  • Peripheral Protein
  • Membrane Carbohydrate

    • Phospholipids Bi-layer
The bilayer is what cause the cell membrane to be amphipathic because the phospholipids has a hydrophilic and hydrophobic side.
It is large and sturdy molecule the helps make the lipid bilayer with membrane stabilization.
25% of cholesterol is in animal cells
Integral Proteins
It is a trans-membrane protein that permanently attached to the biological membrane
Peripheral Proteins
By attaching to the inside and outside the heads of the lipids, it helps with communication and molecular recognition.
Membrane Carbohydrate
Helps marker the cells for recognition
Homeostasis: When you body and cells try to keep condition's in balance. In order to achieve homeostasis your body use transports to help balance it. Some of the transport require no energy at all as to where others do.
Passive Transport
Transport the require no use of energy, in order to achieve homeostasis.
Image result for diffusion

Molecules spreading out into available space, requiring the 
cell membrane to open the protein channels  in order for it to occur.
The diffusion of water, when water molecule are used to dissolve a solute to diffuse.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
Image result for osmosis

Facilitated DiffusionImage result for facilitated diffusion
This is special kind of diffusion for large hydrophilic molecules such as salt, sugar, etc
Sugar is a hard molecule to get through a regular protein channel so it has a carrier protein to help it get through.
Ion Channel
For ions there are specific channels for each ion to pass through into the cell membrane 
Related image
                 Water Balance
Osmoregulation -the maintenance of the water balance in concentrations
Hypertonic - When solution has a higher concentration than the cell causing the cell to shrink
Hypotonic - The solution has lover concentration than cell, the cell expands.
Isotonic - The concentration in the solution and cell are balanced, no change is occurring
Active Transport
The cell membrane forcing molecules to move again their concentration gradient which is normal up the gradient. This requires ATP energy and therefore unbalancing homeostasis.
Sodium-Potassium PumpImage result for Sodium-Potassium Pump
A fancy Integral protein that uses ATP to pump sodium and potassium. Every 3 sodium ion pumped out, 2 potassium ion will pumped in.
Image result for Exocytosis and Endocytosis

Exocytosis and Endocytosis
Exocytosis - secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles 
with the plasma memb
plasma membrane.raneEndocytosis - the import of macromolecules by forming vesicles with 
Phagocytosis - the cell consumes the large molecules
Pinocytosis - the cell that consumes the small molecules
Takara Yaegashi,
Dec 6, 2016, 10:26 PM