Animal Form and Function

Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function -Sarah Rios

Concept 40.1: Physical Laws and the Environment Constrain Animal Size and Shape 

An animal's 'body plan' or shape and size affect how an animal will interact with their environment. Ex:Aquatic animals must have a streamlined body form in order to be hydrodynamic and move around more easily. These adaptations are limited to the organism's environment. For example, a bird cannot be extremely large, because it s limited by the physical law of flight. Birds must generate enough lift to get them off the ground. 
    Size and shape also impact how the animal exchanges energy and materials with it's surroundings. Their body plan must allow living cells to have access to an aqueous medium in order to maintain the fluid of the plasma membrane. 

Concept 40.2: Animal Form and Function are Correlated at all Levels of Function

Organ Systems
  • Lymphatic/ Immune: Body defenses 
  • Reproductive: Reproduction
  • Circulatory: Internal distribution of materials 
  • Respiratory: Gas Exchange 
  • Digestive: Food processing
  • Urinary/ Excretory: Disposal of wastes, regulation of osmotic balance of blood
  • Endocrine: Coordination of activities 
  • Skeletal: Body support, movement, protection of organs
  • Muscular: Movement
Animals Exhibit Hierarchical levels of organization. Cells -> Tissues-> Organs-> Organ systems 
Four Main Categories of Tissue 
1. Epithelial Tissue: Covers the outside of the body and internal cavities and organs
  • Stratified Columnar Epithelium: Lines the inner surface of the urethra 
  • Simple Columnar Epithelium: Lines the intestines, secretes digestive juices 
  • Simple Squamous Epithelium: Lines blood vessels and air sacs of lungs, function in material exchange  
  • Cuboidal Epithelium: Lines tubules of the thyroid gland, secretes hormones that regulate fuel consumption 
  • Stratified Squamous Epithelia: Lines areas subject to abrasion: the outer skin, throat, anus, and vagina. Rapid cell division.
  • Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium: Forms a mucous membrane that lines respiratory tract 
2. Muscle Tissue: Made of cells that contract, usually in response to stimulus
  • Skeletal Muscle aka Striated Muscle: Responsible for voluntary movement. Consists of fibers that are made of bundles of strands called microfibrils 
  • Cardiac Muscle: Contracts the wall of the heart. Similar structure to skeletal muscle, but action is involuntary
  • Smooth Muscle: Found in the walls of the digestive tract, bladder, arteries, and other organs. Responsible for involuntary body activities such as constriction of arteries. 
3.Nervous Tissue: Detects stimuli and sends signals to and from different parts of the body

4. Connective Tissue: Supports and binds other tissues 
  • Loose Connective Tissue: Binds epithelia to underlying tissues, holds organs in place
  • Fibrous Connective Tissue: Found in tendons (attach muscle to bone) and ligaments (join bones together), dense fibrous tissue due to large amount of collagenous fibers
  • Cartilage: Makes up a cap on the edge of certain bones, and discs between vertebrae; strong and flexible
  • Adipose Tissue: Loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose cells 
  • Blood: Liquid (plasma: dissolved proteins, salts, water) that helps transport nutrients, blood cells, and waste throughout the body 
  • Bone: Mineralized connective tissue, hard structure caused by osteons

Concept 40.3 Animals use the Chemical Energy in Food to Sustain Form and Function 

Animals obtain chemical energy from breaking down food into ATP that stores energy for cellular work. Metabolic rate of an animal is the total amount of energy that is used in a unit of time. Metabolic rate per gram is related to body size, and activity increases metabolic rate above BMR (Basic metabolic rate - Endotherms) and SMR (standard metabolic rate -Ectotherms). Animals use energy for metabolism, activity, homeostasis, growth, and reproduction.